Update: We received the following response from AMD:
Early AMD adopters will have to put their Crucible slaying and engram collecting on hold. Destiny 2 fans who upgraded to Ryzen 3000 have discovered that the game will not run on their shiny new CPUs, despite the Battle.net launcher claiming otherwise.
The .exe manages to show up in Task Manager but will disappear moments later. Bungie is on the case, but it hasn’t yet elaborated on what the cause could be or when gamers can expect a fix.
Players have reported the issue on subreddits for Destiny and AMD, and on the game’s official forums. It appears to be affecting every Ryzen 3000 series variant, and no other specific driver installs or hardware combinations seem to affect the problem either way.